Resources & Validation Studies



View Cairn GEBT Brochure (PDF)

General information on a faster, more direct pathway to diagnosis

View Test Request Form

13C-Spirulina GEBT Test Request Form. The form provided here is an example only and not supposed to be used with a GEBT.

View how to administer the Cairn GEBT (PDF)

Step-by-step instructions for administering the test

View GEBT interpretation and sample reports. (PDF)

How to interpret Cairn GEBT results and how they compare to gastric scintigraphy

View Cairn GEBT patient guide (PDF)

What you can expect when taking the test

Validation and peer-reviewed literature on the 13C-Spirulina Gastric Emptying Breath Test

Priya Vijayvargiya, Priya et all. Effects of Promotility Agents on Gastric Emptying and Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysisGastroenterology, Jan 2019, Available at

Jutta Keller, Gabrio Bassotti, John Clarke, Phil Dinning, Mark Fox, Madhusudan Grover, Per M. Hellström, Meiyun Ke, Peter Layer, Carolina Malagelada, Henry P. Parkman, S. Mark Scott, Jan Tack, Magnus Simren, Hans Törnblom, Michael Camilleri & on behalf of the International Working Group for Disorders of Gastrointestinal Motility and Function.  Advances in the diagnosis and classification of gastric and intestinal motility disorders Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatologyvolume 15, pages 291–308 (2018) Available at

    M. Farrell, M. Costello, J. McKee, L. Gordon, L. Fig. Compliance with Gastric-Emptying Scintigraphy Guidelines: A Report from the Intersocietal Accreditation Commission Database. Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology February 2017. Available at

    Bharucha A, et al. for the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial – Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Research Group. Delayed Gastric Emptying Is Associated With Early and Long-term Hyperglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes MellitusGastroenterology. August 2015; 149(2):330-339. Available at

    Camilleri, Michael MD; Parkman, Henry P MD; Shafi, Mehnaz A MD; Abell, Thomas L MD; Gerson, Lauren MD, MSc. Clinical Guideline: Management of Gastroparesis. American Journal of Gastroenterology: January 2013 – Volume 108 – Issue 1 – p 18-37. Available at

    Bharucha AE, Camilleri M, Veil E, Burton D, Zinsmeister AR. Comprehensive assessment of gastric emptying with a stable isotope breath testNeurogastroenterology and Motility. Jan 2013; 25(1):e60–e69. Available at

    Odunsi S, Camilleri M, Szarka L, Zinsmeister A. Optimizing Analysis of Stable Isotope Breath Tests to Estimate Gastric Emptying of SolidsNeurogastroenterology and Motility. July 2009; 21(7):706-711. Available at

    Szarka L, et al. A stable isotope breath test with a standard meal for abnormal gastric emptying of solids in the clinic and in researchClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology. June 2008; 6(6):635-643. Available at

    Abell, Thomas L., M.D.; Camilleri, Michael, M.D.; Donohoe, Kevin, M.D.; Hasler, William L., M.D.; Lin, Henry C., M.D.; Maurer, Alan H., M.D.; McCallum, Richard W., M.D.; Nowak, Thomas, M.D.; Nusynowitz, Martin L., M.D.; Parkman, Henry P., M.D.; Shreve, Paul, M.D.; Szarka, Lawrence A., M.D.; Snape, William J. Jr, M.D.; Ziessman, Harvey A., M.D. Consensus Recommendations for Gastric Emptying Scintigraphy: A joint Report of the American Neurogastroenterology and Motiility Society and the Society of Nuclear Medicine. American Journal of Gastroenterology. March 2008 – Volume 103 – Issue 3 – p 753-763. Available at

    Viramontes BE, et al. Validation of a stable isotope gastric emptying test for normal, accelerated or delayed gastric emptyingNeurogastroenterology and Motility. December 2001; 13(6):567-574. Available at

    Lee J, Camilleri M, Zinsmeister A, Burton D, Kost L, Klein P. A valid, accurate, office based non-radioactive test for gastric emptying of solidsGut. June 2000; 46(6):768-773. Available at